The Road to La Rochelle

The Doyons moved around a bit. They first showed up in Saint Marcellin, Isére in what was once called the Dauphiny region of France.  Eventually at least some of them ended up in La Rochelle.  If you were to drive that trip today it would take you about seven hours and cover approximately 735 km (about 450 miles). Overland travel in the 16th century was long, slow and treacherous. The best way to travel was by boat, which was marginally safer, and probably faster in the long run. However they did it, it was a long and difficult journey. So how did they get to Dauphiny and why did they end up in La Rochelle?

If you believe in the story of creation, and want to take our family history all the way back to the beginning, one could assume that our ancestors were part of the group that was saved by God after the flood that prompted Noah to build his ark. That would make all of us descendants of the prophet Japheth [1]. History tells us that the Celts descended from a son of Japheth named Gomer who helped establish the Celts in an area near the Black Sea in Asia Minor. About 2500 years ago, at the beginning of the Bronze Age, some of this group started moving West, following the Danube toward the center of Europe soon appearing in what would become Germany and Bavaria.

About 2000 to 1700 years B.C.E. there was another westward migration toward the British Isles where people dispersed and took on different names. Then in 390 C.E., for reasons we can only guess, there was a migration back to France to territory ruled by the Gauls which at that time included what is now France, Belgium, Switzerland and part of Germany. That territory was occupied by a belligerent people, lead by Vercingetorix the Gaul. The Gauls put up a pretty determined fight against the invading Romans, but lost the battle in 40 C.E.

Roman leadership under Caesar proved to be good for Gaul. Trade prospered during this time as the Romans built roads connecting all parts of their empire. This time in history would coincide with the emergence of that small hamlet in Belgium named “Doyon” and the first mention of my family name in that region.  According to research done by Pére Dominique Doyon [2], “1319 is the oldest mention of the place (hamlet) of Doyon (or Oyon or Dyon)” [my translation].  In 1422, the Hamlet of Doyon (or Dyon or Doyonaz) is mentioned in the archives for the province of Namur, Belgium [3].

In 1451, there is mention of a Doyon as a fish breeder [4]. Under the reign of Charles VIII of France (1470-1498) “it is mentioned that he had a Grand Master of his artillery and excellent climber named Doyac, according to Rabelais in his Pantagruel ( L. 4, ch . LV11 ) [5]” [my translation].

The next 125 years are fairly quiet regarding the whereabouts of the Doyons and what they might be up to.  But in 1579, the wedding contract of Jacques Doyon and Antoinette Charland is recorded in St. Marcellin on 3 February, placing our family firmly in that area.

Somewhere between the wedding in 1579 and the birth of their son, Jacques in 1594 [6], the family moved to La Rochelle. We have no way of knowing why they moved, but their migration might well have been predicated on the French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) when many people migrated to find more religious freedom and perhaps better living conditions. There was a great deal of population movement in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries most caused by political, social and economic tension made worse by religious division. France, in particular, was suffering from rapid inflation and falling wages brought on by the influx of New World gold. Taxes were rising because the government was only getting about 25% of the taxes collected (much of the money collected was lining the pockets of the local tax collectors). The middle class was unhappy because they had no political say and the nobles were unhappy because they were losing their power and authority. It was a contentious couple of centuries with civil clashes breaking out everywhere giving people motivation to look for new places to put down roots. Whatever the reason, at some point before 1594, Jacques Doyon (1550-1622) and his wife Antoinette Charland (1550-1620) found their way to the largely Protestant city of La Rochelle in the province of Aunis, where their son Jacques was born in 1594.

It is there, in 1615, that the twenty-one-year-old Jacques, would marry Francoise Couturier. Four years later, in 1619, they would have a son, Jean, who you may remember from the last chapter, was the first member of our family to emigrate to North America.

Notes

1 –  In Biblical as well as Quranic tradition, Japheth is considered to be the progenitor of European, and some Asian, peoples. In medieval Europe various nations and ethnicities were given genealogies tracing back to Japheth and his descendants. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japheth)
2 – 
Histoire et généalogie de la famille Doyon, p 8. Based on information obtained from the Belgium archiver M. Courtoy research on behalf of Pére Dominique.
3 –  Letters from René-Louis Doyon, of Paris, dated 20 Aug 1951 and January 1952 to  Pére Dominique. Citation taken from Histoire et généalogie de la famille Doyon.
4 –  Histoire et généalogie de la famille Doyon, p 8.
5 –  Gargantua and Pantagruel (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gargantua_and_Pantagruel)
6 –  Jacques would serve as a soldier for the seat of La Rochelle and, once the war ended, would establish himself in or near Aunis.

 

Author’s Notebook – The Isère and Liberty

Researching and writing this story is a lot of fun. It is also a lot of work! But every once in awhile, while digging around for substantiation of some fact or another, I stumble upon something that is related to our story (sort of…) or is just plain interesting.  I admit it – I can get sidetracked! Today’s post is one of those interesting “asides” that amused and educated me and so I thought I would share it with all of you.  Continue reading “Author’s Notebook – The Isère and Liberty”

Le Fromage et le Dauphin

cheeseIt is pure deliciousness. Warm and creamy, with just a bit of a salty nuttiness – a bubbly, gooey little brown crock of goodness just waiting for a crust of French bread. If you drizzle it with some honey and serve it on crostini topped with a candied pecan, well, there are just no words to describe it’s sweet, savory, sumptuous flavor. Saint-Marcellin cheese is, quite simply, a luscious little slice of heaven [1]. The sleepy little village in the Dauphiné region of the Rhone-Alpes that gives this cheese its name is also home to the high jinks of a young King Louis XI and the first place history records evidence of my Doyon ancestors.

st.marcellin 4
Photo of St. Marcellin by Patrick Amet (2010)

There is not a lot written about the verdant little town of Saint-Marcellin. There are only about 8,000 residents today. It is a quiet village nestled in the valley of the River Isére, which runs from the Alps down to the Rhone. Located about sixty-five miles south of Lyon, and not far from Grenoble, it is renowned for its cheese.

mini-map-Saint-MarcellinFor a while, it was the home of the devious and disobedient Dauphin Louis II, later to become King Louis XI. Because of Louis’ endless intrigues and open rebellion against his father, King Charles VII, Louis was banished to his own province of Dauphiné [2] where he ruled as king in all but name and continued his scheming and subterfuge. In 1451, at the age of twenty-seven, Louis married eight-year-old Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Saxony, against his father’s wishes, throwing France’s foreign policy into chaos and initiating its long-term involvement in the affairs of Italy. Eventually, Charles, having had enough of his son’s shenanigans, sent an army to Dauphiné, forcing Louis to retreat to Burgundy – but not before Louis became the subject of some local lore. 

Louis XI
The Dauphin Louis II

It is a story – like so many things French – about food. In the forest of Lente many of the local men made their living as sawyers. According to regional legend, the future King Louis XI, then still a young man, was out hunting one day in 1445 and, having fallen from his horse, found himself face-to-face with a giant bear. His shouts for help were heard by two woodcutters who came to his rescue and took the young Dauphin back to their cabin – feeding him bread and some of their local cheese. It was love at first bite – and by 1461 this cheese, which had then become known as Saint-Marcellin cheese, was on Louis’s table in the Louvre [3].  

Or so the story goes …

In addition to being the cradle of such a wonderful cheese, and the setting for the tale of how their most famous export made it to the best tables in Paris, Saint-Marcellin, Isére, is the place where evidence of my Doyon ancestors is first recorded.  As I mentioned in an earlier chapter, Pére Dominique Doyon and his sister, Madeline, uncovered evidence of a “Douin” in this area of France in a 1260 census [4].  

A century after that census, in 1365, it was the birthplace of my 16th great grandfather, Jean Doyon who died sometime after 1397, the birth year of his son Jean Doyon (1397-1440).  

8 generation Jean Doyon

The line continues with :

Pierre Doyon (1429-1500)
Barthelemy Doyon (1467-1520)
Enymond Doyon (1500-1560)

In 1530, Enymond had a son, Claude Doyon (1530-1589).  Around 1548, Claude married Antoinette Chabran (1529-1563) and they had a son in 1550 named Jacques (1550-1622). Jacques was the last of my ancestors to be born in Saint-Marcellin.  Jacques was married to Antoinette Charland (1550-1620) born the same year in the same place, and they are the grandparents of the first of my ancestors, Jean Doyon (1619-1664), to come to North America.

I have no idea what my Saint-Marcellin ancestors did for a living. If any of them were cheesemakers, I have not been able to find any evidence of it. I do know that when Jean (1619-1664), came to New France in 1644 he worked as a laborer and a sawyer, so woodcutting could have been the family business. Perhaps Jean’s fourth great grandfather, Pierre (1429-1500) was one of the woodcutters who saved the young Louis from the bear. Our family could have intimate ties to the legend of Saint-Marcellin cheese. Hard to know. But it is a fact that they have been making cheese in Saint-Marcellin for a very long time.

I am almost certain there was no Saint-Marcellin cheese on board the ship Jean sailed on from the Port of New Rochelle, France in 1644 en route to the new world. If Jean was longing for a taste of his ancestral home, it was just one of the many things he would learn to live without over the next few years.

___________________________________________

Notes:

[1] “Served traditionally in small crocks, Saint-Marcellin is another soft ripened historic cheese of France, coming from Isere, (formerly known as Dauphiné region). Named after the small town of Saint-Marcellin, it’s a cow’s milk cheese with a soft, silky texture, runny interior, and mild to strong flavors. Deliciously creamy and with a fresh milky aftertaste, it can be enjoyed at any time of the day – as a quick lunch, as a starter, or on the cheeseboard. It is also excellent warmed in the oven and served with a fresh baguette. A great match with most big reds, it is found at every gastronome’s table.  A soft-ripened cheese of pasteurized cow’s milk with a rindless golden crust and white mold, Saint Marcellin is mild, a little acidic, and slightly salty. Characteristically, the soft beige interior is pungent and buttery. It has an intensely creamy texture, with a complex nutty, fruity flavor that becomes more robust as it matures. It has been described for centuries as “a cheese to worship”! As with most soft ripened cheeses, Saint-Marcellin pairs well with red wines, such as Cotes du Rhone, Chateauneuf du Pape, or a spicy Syrah”. Ile de France – Portal of the French Cheese Community.

[2] – The region was originally part of the kingdom of Arles and a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1030, the southern part of the countship was enfeoffed to Guigues I, Count of Albon.  His great-grandson, Guigues IV, Count of Albon from 1133-1142 was the first to bear the name Dauphin. The domain passed from the House of Albon to that of Burgundy in 1162. The land changed hands again in 1282, being taken over by the Tour du Pin family. By the end of the 13th century, the name had been transferred into a title and the fiefs held by them became known as Dauphiné. The dauphins of Tour du Pin developed governmental and judiciary institutions in the region. Their leader, Humbert II, broke and in ill health, sold Dauphiné to the future Charles V of France in 1349. Charles began the practice of ceding Dauphiné to his heir apparent.

[3] – The Sexy Little Saint-Marcellin, 30 Apr 2012, and, CheeseOnLine.

[4] – In 1260 (during the time of Louis, King of France) the oldest form of Doyon was “Doiun” (according to A. Daugat who found this version in the archives of Isere, pg. 26-62, after a census called “Probus” done in 1260 by the Dauphin, following a very violent flood in Isere.) [my translation]. Un Bel Héritage – Jean Doyon, Diane Lessard-Doyon and Pére Dominique Doyon, Imprimerie du Parc, Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce, July 1992, Bibliothèques Nationales du Québec et d’Ottawa, Part II, pg. 7

____________________________________________

Further Reading:

The History of Chartreuse Liqueurs – the fascinating story of another of the region’s contributions to gastronomy – chartreuse liquor. This liquor has an interesting story – beginning as an elixer made by the Carthusian monks in 1737. It became quite popular in the United States in the early part of the 20th century. This liquor, still made by the same monks, is a blend of all natural plants, herbs and other botanicals suspended in wine alcohol. At 69% alcohol by volume, and 138 proof – it is pretty potent stuff. There was a Prohibition-era cocktail called The Last Word. The recipe calls for equal parts of gin, lime juice, green chartreuse and Maraschino liqueur.  There was also an article in the Wall Street Journal in June 2011 entitled The Intrigue of Chartreuse which tells the story of its popularity in the U.S.

 

What’s In A Name?

Doyon

Where Did The Surname “Doyon” Come From?

A Bit of Backstory

Up until the 11th century, most people didn’t have a surname. They were largely illiterate, lived in small villages or rural areas, and had little use for any name beyond their given name. When people started traveling and interacting with neighbors from nearby villages they needed a way to keep everyone straight and the practice of adding another name became necessary. Surnames were largely adopted between the 11th and 16th centuries in England and mainland Europe, between the 16th and 19th centuries in Wales and between the 11th and 19th centuries in Scotland. The use of patronymic surnames (forming a surname from the father’s given name – such as Johnson indicating the “son of John”) became popular. In rare cases, the naming practice was metronymic (the surname was derived from the mother’s given name). Some surnames came from places, such as “England”.  Occasionally geography played a part in keeping all the Johns and Marys organized – so we have Woods, Fords and Hills.  Many names came into being because they were used to identify people by their trade – Millers, Bakers, Shoemakers, Coopers, Saddlers, Sawyers … you get the picture.  

So what about the name “Doyon”?

There are entire studies devoted to the origin of names and one could spend a great deal of time researching and piecing together all the possibilities. You end up with a few facts, a lot of speculation and very little consensus. I have found a number of different theories for my last name but there is no way to know for sure how it really came into being.

There are many variations of Doyon including Doiun, Doyenne, Doyot and Doyette. In French, the meaning of the word doyenne is “a woman who has a lot of experience in or knowledge about a particular profession, subject, etc.”. [1]  The masculine form of the word is Doyen – which denotes a man who is the senior member of a group, profession, or society. One of the explanations of the origins of “Doyon” is that it denotes one who as at the head of a community. It probably derives from the Latin “decanus” which is “chief of ten” in old Latin from whence we get the word deacon.   

Evidence of the use of this name is first recorded in Dauphiny, a former province in southeast France where a family by this name established themselves in very early times. The name DOYON [2] shows up on a census called “Probus” done in France in 1260-1270 [3] during the reign of Louis IX of France after a very violent flood in Isére.  Pére Dominique Doyon and his sister, Madeleine, through their research [4], discovered a DOYON who was the prefecture in the ancient city of Condroz in the Namur Province of France.

Places named Doyon

Chateau Doyon
Chateau Doyon Photo from Wikipedia

There is, today, a hamlet in Belgium named Doyon, located in the Walloon region of the Namur Province [5]. This hamlet is made up of about 50 families, and is home to a castle called ‘Chateau Doyon’. The castle is surrounded by a small wood and possesses an old chapel sheltered by a gigantic and very old linden tree. I have not been able to find very much information about this castle, other than it was built in the 13th century and is renowned for it giant Sequoia trees.  At the end of the hamlet is an old Roman chapel called Chapelle St-Nicolas, built in the 11th century. The entrance path to this chapel is currently indicated by a sign that reads:  Doyon, Private Road. Yes, there is a castle and small town in Europe bearing my last name.

 

doyon welcome 2
Welcome to Doyon, ND Flickr.com photo
Doyon road sign
Doyon is “that way” Flickr.com photo

There is a town in North Dakota called Doyon that was established in 1900 by Charles H. Doyon.   The town has its very own Facebook and Wikipedia pages. In 2012 it had a population of 447 people [6].  I wonder how many of them have the surname “Doyon”? 

There is an entire association devoted to “Doyons in America” that has a website [7], family crest, bulletins and regular gatherings. Further research uncovered a large company in Fairbanks, Alaska called Doyon Limited [8] with 19,000 shareholders and a very comprehensive website.

Doyon Shield
Banner from Doyon Association Website “What has to be done – we do”

Some “Doyon” Data

  • There are 10,367 people, worldwide, with the name Doyon – 2,445 of them in the U.S [9].
  • The name appears most often, with the most density, in Canada
  • The 1996 Census Bureau reported [10]:
    • In 1990, the name “Doyon” was #7,285 (out of 88,799 names)
    • In 2000 the name “Doyon” was #13,260 (out of 151,671 names)
  • The largest concentration of people with the name Doyon in the U.S. is in Maine and Massachusetts
  • Five men named Doyon fought in the Civil War [11]
    Screenshot 2016-06-05 at 12.15.59 PM

Having spent most of my life estranged from this side of my family, the research I have done into my ancestors and their history has been a journey of discovery. This is a family proud of their heritage, steeped in traditions and strong in their loyalty to each other, their culture and their homeland. The roots of the Doyon family tree are deep and far reaching.

We begin our story where we find the greatest concentration of my Doyon ancestors, and the first verifiable records of their existence, in the southeast part of France in a place called Saint Marcellin, Isére.

________________________________________________________________

Notes

1- Merriam-Webster Dictionary
2 – Spelled “Douin” in this particular census
3 – Un Bel Héritage: Jean Doyon, Diane Lessard-Doyon and Pére Dominique Doyon, o.p., Imprimerie du Parc, Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce, Bibliotèques Nationales de Québec et d’Ottawa, July 1992, pg 14.
4 – 
Histoire et Généalogie de la Famille Doyon, F. Dominique Doyon, o.p, Beauceville, 1978, pgs. 7-9.
5 – 
Doyon is a hamlet in the old Belgian town of Flostoy, located in the town of Havelange and the province of Namur.
6 – CLR Research study (http://www.clrsearch.com/Doyon-Demographics/ND/58327/Population-Growth-and-Population-Statistics).
7 – 
Association of Doyons in the Americas website
8 – https://www.doyon.com/frequently-asked-questions-doyon-annual-meeting-election/
9 – http://forebears.io/surnames/doyon
10 – T
o appear on this list, a name must occur 100 times or more. 97% of all surnames don’t make this list.
11 – Ancestry.com

Further Reading:

Le patrimoine monumental de belgique: Wallonie, Volume 22, Pierre Mardaga, Editor, published by the Ministry of the Wallone Region, 1996, pgs. 723-725

Photos
Association of Doyons in America
Genealogy of French-America
“I Love Doyon” on Pinterest